Chloride And Sulphate Content In Concrete

165. Calcium Chloride in Concrete

165. Calcium Chloride in Concrete

Thus, calcium chloride is not recommended for concrete exposed to sulphate attack. In certain instances it may be used in a concrete member exposed to a sea water environment, but its use should be determined by the function of the member and the severity of exposure (CSA A).

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Effect of silica fume on the chloride and sulphate attack ...

Effect of silica fume on the chloride and sulphate attack ...

EFFECT OF SILICA FUME SUBSTITION IN HAC ON THE CHLORIDE AND SULPHATE ATTACK 231 other side, as the amount of SF increases the chloride content decreases,, the cement pastes without SF have higher values than those containing SF. The diffusion process of chloride ions in cement pastes is

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Chloride ion concentration

Chloride ion concentration

Chloride ion concentration. In chloridecontaminated concrete, it is necessary to determine the concentration of chloride ions at various depths in order to determine the likelihood of corrosion of the reinforcing steel. To do this dust samples ( see separate entry) are taken from increments of depth (say 5 to 25 mm, 25 to 50 mm, 50 to 75 mm etc).

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Durability of concrete exposed to leaching and external ...

Durability of concrete exposed to leaching and external ...

in sulphate rich waters or soils. Binder of C5 concrete mixture is not sulphateresisting, because its C 3A content is higher than 5%. C1 concrete mixture was made of this same cement and has high W eff./ Eq. Binder ratio. Such mixture often leads to poor resistance to leaching and sulphateattacks[27], but C1 was designed to investigate

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Measuring chloride ion contents in new concrete: how to ...

Measuring chloride ion contents in new concrete: how to ...

The chloride ion content of new concrete may be determined by testing the concrete, or by calculating the contribution of chlorides from the aggregates, admixtures and mix water used to make the concrete. NZS 3101 specifies methods of measuring the acidsoluble chloride ion content of new concrete.

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Effect of Carbonation and Sulphate on Chloride Ingress in ...

Effect of Carbonation and Sulphate on Chloride Ingress in ...

The main cause of premature deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is the corrosion of steel bars, induced by chloride ions (for example in marine environment) and/or by carbonation (atmospheric CO2). At the same time, environmentalinduced degradations of concrete can also affect the structure, such as sulphate attack. This can lead to the formation of ettringite, inducing expansion ...

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Durability And Exposure Classes

Durability And Exposure Classes

Concrete placed in the ground (, foundations) are susceptible to chemical attacks due to ground contamination, gas, sulphate attack and chemicals in groundwater. Due to the unpredictability of ground conditions, precaustion should be taken when designing foundations and .

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Nondestructive methods for measuring chloride ingress ...

Nondestructive methods for measuring chloride ingress ...

The measurement of chloride content at the concrete cover could be used to estimate the risk of corrosion initiation, and therefore, to optimize repair and maintenance costs. There are many lab techniques and field measurements for measuring chloride content in RC. The most popular techniques are potentiometric and Volhard methods.

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Corrosion behavior of steel submitted to chloride and ...

Corrosion behavior of steel submitted to chloride and ...

Corrosion behavior of steel submitted to chloride and sulphate ions in simulated concrete pore solution Guojian Liu, Yunsheng Zhang⇑, Ziwei Ni, Ran Huang School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 21189, PR China highlights Corrosion behavior of steel submitted to chloride and/or sulphate is investigated.

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pdf Download AASHTO T 260: Standard Method of Test for ...

pdf Download AASHTO T 260: Standard Method of Test for ...

This method covers procedures for the determination of the acidsoluble chloride ion content or the watersoluble chloride ion content of aggregates, portland cement, mortar, or concrete. The total amount of chloride is usually equal to the acidsoluble chloride. However, organic additives or minerals that contain acidinsoluble chloride may be present in concrete and concrete raw materials.

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Chemical attack on concrete 2017

Chemical attack on concrete 2017

 · Calculation of sulphate content in concrete mix and it's limit Ingredient Quantity of material in approved mixdesign (kg) Sulphate as per test report % Sulphate contributed by ingredients (kg) Cement 400 Water 161 Sand 672 .01 .067 10mm 515 .01 .052 20mm 629 .01 .063 Admixture Total 2328 THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO UNIVERSITY, BARODA 23/02/2017 21 Sulphate .

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ACCEPTABLE CHLORIDE ION LIMIT IN CONCRETE

ACCEPTABLE CHLORIDE ION LIMIT IN CONCRETE

total chloride ion content by the weight of cementitious materials determined by acidsoluble method was preferred as the representation of chloride content in concrete. Words Acceptable Chloride Limit, Chloride Threshold, Corrosion, Linear Polarization Resistance, AcidSoluble Chloride, WaterSoluble Chloride, Chloride Binding 18.

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Critical chloride content in reinforced concrete

Critical chloride content in reinforced concrete

COIN Workshop on "critical chloride content" in reinforced concrete 8 – Gro Markeset: Critical chloride content and its influence on service life predictions. Discussion – Tang Luping: A field study of critical chloride content in reinforced concrete with blended binder Discussion

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Sulfate Impurities from Deicing Salt and Durability of ...

Sulfate Impurities from Deicing Salt and Durability of ...

sulfate in rock salt on portland cement mortar durability. Much has been published about sulfate ions causing expansive reac­ tions in portland cement concrete (2, 3), on scaling caused by sodium chloride (4, 5), and the participation of magnesium sulfate in seawater attack (2). However, little work has been

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Chemical attack in concrete

Chemical attack in concrete

 · Chloride enters the concrete from the cement, water, aggregate and sometimes from admixtures. This can also enter by diffusion from environment if concrete is permeable. The Bureau of Indian Standard had specified the maximum chloride content in cement as %.

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Spalling Concrete

Spalling Concrete

Following are the causes of concrete spalling: Inadequate cover to reinforcement, freezethaw cycles, alkali aggregate reactions, improper compaction, improper water content, sulphate attack, chloride attack, rough finishes, high temperature, polluted environment. 4.

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Chloride Content | Construction Materials Consultants, Inc.

Chloride Content | Construction Materials Consultants, Inc.

ASTM C 1152 test for nitric acidsoluble chloride content in concrete, which corresponds to the total chloride content contributed from all the solid and liquid ingredients of concrete as well as chlorides from external sources, and, ASTM C 1218 test for watersoluble chloride content in concrete, which is directly responsible for the chlorideinduced corrosion of steel in concrete are two ...

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Impact of ALKALY, SULPHURE and CHLORINE in Kiln operation ...

Impact of ALKALY, SULPHURE and CHLORINE in Kiln operation ...

As a result, C2S content is increased and C3S content is decreased in the clinker, causing a reduction in cement strengths. 4. If chloride is very high, it will first combine with all of the alkalis present forming alkali chlorides which will recirculate in the kiln and increase the probability of buildups in the preheater.

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MARINE CONSTRUCTION Chloride content of hardened concrete ...

MARINE CONSTRUCTION Chloride content of hardened concrete ...

also recommends that the maximum chloride content of concrete be measured by BS 1881: 124 (9) tests on hardened concrete. The limits quoted are: no more than % chloride by mass of cement and with 95% of all test results less than %. These limits are difficult

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Standard Test Method for AcidSoluble Chloride in Mortar ...

Standard Test Method for AcidSoluble Chloride in Mortar ...

The amount of acidsoluble chloride in most hydrauliccement systems is equal to the total amount of chloride in the system. However, some organic substances that may be introduced into mortar or concrete contain chloride that is initially acidinsoluble that can eventually ionize and thus become acidsoluble or watersoluble after a period of exposure in the very alkaline cement system.

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